The Passage of Time
By Lucy Pringle, ©2004

As in the previous eleven years, I have continued with my investigations into the effects of geomagnetic and electromagnetic fields on living systems.

For new readers, this research is based mainly on the reports sent in by people who have visited circles or been in their vicinity either in the fields or during lectures. How can people be affected by seeing circles on a screen, you may ask? We know that certain shapes trigger off responses in the brain. It is known as SIGN STIMULUS and has a similar effect as when people hear lovely music. The resonances from the music passing through the ear into the brain kindle emotions. Shapes can also trigger off this reaction or behavioural pattern without the observer having any conscious awareness of the process.

After a talk I gave recently in Truro, Cornwall, two people came up to me to tell me that they had been healed during my talk. One had felt a current of electricity pass through him healing him and the other person's damaged shoulder of long standing was no longer painful. I must stress that I am not responsible for these healings, they are due the frequencies emanating from the projected images intermingling with the personal energies of the recipients.

I have over 600 reports now restored to my database (my old computer crashed terminally) with the help of Marion Simmonds.

The reports are analysed and put into categories listed below. The categories may seem arbitrary, so there are also additional sub sections to each.

ORAL (taste (metallic), tooth pain, unusual thirst)
CRANIAL (headaches)
OCULAR (vision changes, hallucination)
AUDITORY (Acoustic) hearing voices, music etc
GUT (nausea, diarrhoea, sudden hunger etc.)
SYSTEMIC (dizziness, weak knees, leg pain etc.)
MENTAL (thought processes affected, short-term memory loss, feelings of panic, terror, evil, peace, love and light, disorientation, sense of a presence)

On a cautionary note, I would like to remind people that if they do not feel well when visiting a crop circle, come out immediately. If you are pregnant or thinking of becoming pregnant, it is unadvisable, also due to the many electrical failures experienced inside the circles, if you have you have a health device geared by a battery such as a heart pace maker, do NOT venture in.

The 2004 season was slow to start; maybe it was reluctant to get out of bed after a long winter warmly tucked up inside.

One of the most important and earliest was the Fort Nelson formation that appeared in Hampshire on the 10 June within sight of Nelson's column and overlooking the sea near Porchester Castle originally an old Roman fortress. Of great historical importance, Porchester Castle boasts the most complete Roman Walls in Europe dating from the 3rd century fort; these are present today on the original site.

Hampshire Heritage Trail tells us that the curtain wall of the Outer Bailey originally had twenty bastions and four gates - two of these massive gates are known as the Watergate and the Landgate, and the south wall displays some of the best examples of Roman work.

Armed with directions I took 2 local friends, Juanita Pertwee and Sarah Miles to visit the formation. Both turned out to be essential to the success of the expedition. Juanita, an expert in orienteering directed us to Monument Farm. The door was locked, bolted and padlocked, clearly this was a dangerous area but the farmer finally responded to the front door bell and seeing that I was unarmed and not posing any ghastly threat, was happy to talk and informed me that the formation was not on his land but on Manor Farm.

We drove to Manor Farm and I found Mr and Mrs Parrott in the kitchen. "No, no-one is allowed to visit the circles, all circles are man-made anyhow" was their comment. When I revealed that seed tests last year had shown that seeds taken form inside a crop circle contained 50% more protein than the control samples and therefore it could be argued that the seeds from inside the circle were worth considerably more, Mrs Parrott said she would ask their son Timothy who was now in charge of the farm. Mrs Parrott returned, Timothy had said "definitely no".

So somewhat disheartened we drove off to view the formation from the road. It lay on a slope and looked wonderfully beautiful in the evening light of early summer. Sarah was beside herself with frustration and I had to almost physically restrain her. "I can't stand this, I am going back to seduce Timothy" she announced. After a bit of titivating with 'things' from a large canvas bag we arrived back at the farm. It just happened that Mrs Parrott and Timothy were walking back from the fields at that moment and Mrs Parrott immediately recognised Sarah having seen the film, Ryan's Daughter. She fell about herself in excitement and so did Timothy and the next moment we knew we were inside the formation and whilst Sarah was enchanting Timothy, Juanita and I got on with our research, burying bottles and taking seed samples.

The formation consisted of 2 spiralled circles lying in early wheat, kissing at the inner edges. The lay in one circle went clockwise whereas the other lay swirled anti-clockwise. When folded over they became a perfect fit, one into the other. These labyrinthine formations hold a special quality.


A happy ever after ending further enhanced by each of us walking the labyrinth.

It is thought that walking the labyrinth, one is on a journey from perdition (evil) to salvation. It is likened to the Eternal Quest for the Holy Grail.

It is a Pilgrimage, experiencing the twists and turns of the good and bad times in ones life.

It is considered necessary to enter a labyrinth is a pious, humble state of mind such as would happen on a pilgrimage.

The paths of the labyrinth can represent many different aspects such as the charkras of ones body, and therefore whilst walking the labyrinth one may experience strange "feelings" at certain areas which can link to these particular charkras and if understood by the walker can give the participant a picture of what is happening to them on different levels of their being.

Finger walking the labyrinth 6 times will help insomniacs to sleep.

Labyrinths constructed on the principles of sacred geometry such as Chartres will draw water beneath them due to the release of electromagnetic fields.

Understanding of the labyrinth can be adapted to all religions, modus vivendi, traditions, and customs. It is of universal usage and importance.

The more you examine and investigate the labyrinth, the more complex, diverse and profound it becomes.

It is similar to trying to unravel the deeper levels of the mysteries of the Kabbalah.

t is an enormous subject; the more one investigates, it is clear the less one knows, as with many other subjects that embrace diverse areas such as theology, mathematics, music, tradition, custom, legend, history and archaeology, each area having its own depth of learning and research.

A full chemical test called a SA2 was conducted on the water samples with the following results and report:
The two samples showing the most changes were 418 and 420. 418 was buried in the centre of one of the spirals and 420 at the perimeter of the other spiral. 415 was the control sample. As shown on the diagram 420 showed a noticeable increase in Nitrate Nitrogen as compared with the control. The increase in the Nitrate content is a trend we would expect to find in genuine formations. We now know that some form of strong electrical force or field is present when a formation appears. We also know that this is likely to be a plasma, a gas containing a high density of electrons and positive ions. When in a gas they stop behaving like individuals and start behaving like an integrated whole, such as a swarm of bees or a shoal of fish etc that can move simultaneously with tremendous force and speed. When this condition occurs, nitric oxcide, not to be confused with nitrous oxide (laughing gas) can result. It is a by product of combustion and can be formed by lightning. It was this situation that encouraged Jim Lyons to suggest to ADAS that there might be residual traces of Nitrogen in the soil that could be detected and measured.

Diagram 1

Diagram 2

418 revealed quite a significant change in the Electrical Conductivity.

Generally the major source of conductivity in water is due to absorbed salts, often chlorides of sodium and potassium. Changes in water conductivity can usually be assigned to the freeing of ions of these salts. An increase in conductivity means that more free ions are available in solution. Jim Lyons suggests "I would put my money on the chlorides if I had to choose one only.  The circle energies are clearly influencing the ionic bond of the dissolved salts."

I must stress that these results are only trends as we are still at a preliminary stage of this area of investigation and the E.C. findings in the Fort Nelson formation are in contract to the trends found in the 2003 Ogbourne samples (below). More research is needed.

Last year we were not able to do a full chemical analysis on water buried inside and outside the wonderful Ogbourne formation as I had been using 25ml bottles. However despite being limited the following results and report conducted blind were interesting. 403 was the control sample, 406 was in the centre and 407 was at the perimeter. This was the area that both Christopher Weeks and I felt was the most energetic.

The lab managed to conduct 4 tests per sample. Results as follows including dowsing auras (Jim Lyons who kindly supplied the following report.)

TEST pH EC Ammonia N Bicarbonate Aura
~7 mmhos/cm mg/l mg/l inches
403 6.5 0.052 1.20 24 30
406 6.1 0.015 0.80 24 55
407 7.6 0.247 0.70 110 90

The ph is the degree of acidity/alkalinity. The neutral level is 7, below is more acid, above more alkaline.  The variation is not dramatic but it should be noted that the most energised sample is the one with the greatest pH.

EC stands for electrical conductivity. {Units are milli mhos-the inverse of ohms, the measure of electrical resisitivity/ unit centimeter) I have pondered this before and thought that subtle energy content could well influence the electrical properties of water. These however are the first results we have. I do not know what the normal variability is between samples so do not have a reference level. However, I am intrigued that the conductivity has increased so much for the most energised sample!  More tests needed here.

I do not see a dramatic change in Ammonia Nitrogen level.(milli grams per litre). It is worth noting that they do decrease in a consistent manner with increased energy level.

The bicarbonate content has gone up dramatically with the level of energy. This looks as though it may be significant!

Overall, there is more variability between these samples than I would have normally expected. In particular, apart from the ammonia Nitrogen level which I thought would be most influenced, there are very large changes especially in the electrical conductivity. This is very intriguing and if it holds out to be consistent, then it potentially indicates a change in the molecular structure of the water. This is still something of a speculation at this point in time.

The overall conclusion is that most changes appear to have occurred with the greatest level of energy absorption.

In order to do a full analysis, I am now using 100ml bottles (in order to cover and conceal them, this requires extra digging which is particularly difficulty when the ground is hard)

Two major formations appeared below the Ridgeway around the time of the summer solstice. The first one to appear was on the night of 19/20th June 2004. It had a wonderfully harmonious quality and a musician told me that when he laid his mandolin on the photograph it was a template. Mathematician Allan Brown visited this formation and was beset with frustration until he managed to work out the complex geometry.

diagram 1diagram 2
Diagrams © Allan Brown

He suffered similar frustration with the 'insect' formation (please include picture of formation)that appeared within days and yards of the Mandolin. Both formations were a joy. Researchers Anne Moro from France and William Betts found evidence of blown nodes and dead flies stuck to the stalks in both formations.

photo 1photo 2photo 3
Blown Node and Dead Flies in 'Mandolin', East Field. © William Betts
photo 4
Blown Nodes 'Insect'. © William Betts
photo 5photo 6photo 7
Dead Flies 'Insect'. © William Betts

Over the years there has been much speculation over the cause of the dead fly syndrome. It has been suggested that something resembling fungus had been noticed on occasions on the seed heads and the flies.   However it is unlikely that it could have killed the insects because fungi more commonly cause diseases in plants than in animals.   For example, powdery mildew, Erysiohe graminae, causes serious damage to wheat.   Also, there is the time factor to consider.  If the insects had been discovered on the morning following the creation of the formation, then most fungi would not have had time to develop.

Rather than fungi being the culprit it is possible that finely matted cobwebs could be responsible as there is no shortage of species of small spider-like mites that produce fine silk webbing on plants and on the ground during dry weather. The red spider mite that can infest greenhouses is one such. Although many feed on plants and decaying organic matter, there are some that prey on invertebrates. They are small, varying from a millimetre down to the point where you would need a powerful magnifying glass to see them. This explanation is supported by the fact that some reliably witnesses have described seeing such webbing. However Betts and Moro found no evidence of webbing or fungi on any of their samples.

Russell Stannard, for example, reported that he visited the Cherhill formation reported on 17th July 1998 ( where Janet Ossebach found many dead flies held by their tongues. Although Janet states that she only found flies within the formation, Russell found several dead flies on a number of plants near the field entrance, some distance away from the formation. All of these flies seemed to be held to the seed heads by a fine web. He also found a single dead fly in the tail of the July 21st 1998 Beckhampton Stingray formation. This fly also appeared to have been caught in a fine web.

Stuart Dick also reports finding flies on the seed heads of the standing crop in the head of this Beckhampton formation These were also caught up in a very fine web together with smaller creatures (spider mites perhaps) inside the seed cavity.

One of the most intriguing aspect revealed in the pictures was that many of the flies were stuck to the plants by their tongues.   In most cases, all the legs of the insects were splayed apart.  It has been noted that people have seen flies resting with their tongues partially extended and touching the surface in front of them.  It is a puzzle how a flies' tongue could become so securely fixed to wheat that the insect could not remove it.

Janet reported that, after a short time, many of the flies recovered and flew off.  Maybe this was after the plants had been lifted off the ground and the insects had been warmed in the sun."

However William Betts and Anne Moro did not see any of the flies coming to life despite staying in the 2 formations for several hours in the hot sun. They remained stuck to the seed heads. Nor did they observe any dead flies on plants outside the formations.

William Betts kindly sent me this interesting report: "To answer your question, at no time did any of the flies recover and fly away.  We had the opportunity to study many examples of these flies in 2 crop circles, the Bee and the Mandoline and in every case the flies were 'glued' to the ears of wheat.  Our friends Robert Hulse and David Cayton  (who also studied and filmed the flies in the Bee), and our 2 Belgian friends will confirm this.  What we did notice however was the beautiful condition of the flies which gave the impression that they were still alive, though strangely when the stalks holding the ear to which they were stuck were cut and removed as a sample the fly very quickly lost its freshness and shrivelled!  It also seemed to lose its grip on the stem.   At no time did we find dead flies outside the formations, and we made a point of looking for these. I even filmed areas of standing crop just outside the mandoline very close to where I had found flies inside just to demonstrate the point. Robert and I both spent time filming one of the most perfect specimens; if any fly was going to fly away it was going to be this one. It stayed put.  Whether it was still alive I cannot say but once the stems were cut they lost their freshness."

One of the most interesting formations of the summer was the old fashioned linear event that appeared beneath Windmill Hill, near the hamlet of Avebury Trusloe on the 17 June.(please include picture)

Windmill Hill is yet another ancient and sacred mound lying in close proximity to Silbury Hill and Avebury Complex. It forms a triangle with Silbury and Avebury and they all lie on the Michael and Mary geodetic energy lines where they meet and cross.

Windmill Hill is thought be dated to the Early Neolithic period some 5000 years ago, 2800 BC and was constructed as a causeway enclosure. It is the largest known of its kind measuring 21 acres (8.5ha).

It consists of three rings of concentric ditches, which were probably dug out in the same manner as the deep Avebury ditch, using antlers and oxen shoulder blades. It was a major task taking many man-hours over many years. It is thought that the camp was at its most important as a farming community during a relatively peaceful and prosperous time of approximately 3000- 3500 years until the advent of the Romans when their presence is evidenced by traces of a villa found on the western slopes of the mound.

With first time croppies from Canada, I visited this formation soon after its arrival. As we progressed along the formation in the direction of Windmill Hill, I suddenly felt as though someone had hit me on the back on head with a sledgehammer. Being a migraine sufferer, I am acutely aware that an ordinary headache can become a serious condition very quickly and so feeling distinctly the worse for wear, nauseous, with a thumping head and distorted vision, I retreated quickly the way I had come, only to find that within a few yards my headache had disappeared as quickly as it had come. I was not the only one to suffer similar symptoms. Several people who had visited it on the coach tour from Glastonbury symposium also found themselves suffering with headaches and nausea, some severe.

Visual distortions
We know that 'energy' lines are distortions in the mineral structure of the planet. Some are linear, some are sinusoidal (wavy) and others spiral. Beneath the surface of the earth's crust there is almost as much activity as in the heavens.

The enormous pressure on rock crystals produces powerful local electrical fields, which can measure several thousand volts per metre. When this action occurs 'luminosities' may also result. Studies by Michael Persinger, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, lead him to believe that there is a connection between earth quakes, electromagnetic fields, unusual brain activity such as visual hallucinations and paranormal events such as U.F.O's.(1)

There is a wealth of evidence from different scientific disciplines, showing that 'energy' lines affect us in many diverse and bizarre ways; distortion of vision, leading to brief blackouts are also recognised and recorded.
Notorious Traffic Accident black spots are almost invariably located on these 'energy' lines. The survivors will often report that that a local, familiar, straight road suddenly had a sharp right hand bend ahead, whilst others will report seeing a non-existent tree just before the accident happened. Clearly there would appear to be some visual distortion.

There is increasing scientific evidence allowing us to make a connection between mechanical failures and seismic activity. The records of car engines stalling and electrical devices failing are so numerous, that the weight of substantiating data can no longer be ignored. Michael Persinger and others, relate these events to "a common piezo-electric seismic discharge from a fault zone."

Migraine Variant
There could also be another possible explanation for these visual distortions; Migraine Variant. This is little known condition suffered by many people who do not suffer the headaches of normal people and therefore are unaware that they are sufferers.

Much research is continuing but unfortunately many people when asked by they did not visit their doctor with these symptoms said, they felt they had not wanted to bother their doctor, or didn't want to be labelled as being 'strange'. Unfortunately as these symptoms are not readily recognisable they might be diagnosed incorrectly.

This condition is often triggered off by seeing straight lines (Avebury Trusloe 'Magnetic Field' formation displayed a series of straight lines!

One interesting visitor from France related how he and a female friend both suffered acute nausea, headaches and exhaustion, thereby suggesting that the residual energies remained as strong as ever. "We stayed in the formation about 20minutes. We left because I wanted to see another formation somewhere else. (I did not make the link between the headache and the crop circle at first). We rented a car to travel in England. As you know, for Frenchies, driving in England is not easy (opposite side of the road the wheel) so we decided that I should drive and Veronica guide me with the map. But Veronica fell asleep in the car (she was sick in fact, nausea), I was not able to find the other formation without her and I was not feeling very well. I was lost! Finally I found my way to the Barge Inn. When we arrived there, we went directly to sleep in the tent for 2 hours (in the middle of the afternoon). That is not usual for us at all. When I woke up, I felt a little better but I was not rested at all. It was like if I had had an agitated sleep."

Another report relates how a Canon XL1Mi 8mm camera failed in the middle of the main formation whereas it worked fine outside the circle. "I felt a strong 'whoosh ' of energy near where the camera failed. I was interviewed by a Norwegian TV crew.

Also three times in a row my camera failed when it viewed the crop circle pictures in the Crop Circle Café. It had to be repaired by Canon; all the electronics had blown, the main vision board, video processing chips, also the date back up battery was exhausted"

Author Linda Moulton —Howe tells me that she heard of 3 other camera failures in the same formation.

Several other reports send to me by women who had visited this formation, told of tummy pains, similar to bad period pains.

At the beginning of August I took a group of people round several of the circles, before ending up at Stonehenge in the evening for a private entry visit. A magical end to the day

Unbeknownst to me, one of the group had a very painful area on the ball of her right foot under her right toe and she was not sure how she was going to manage, knowing that we would be doing a lot of walking. First we visited the West Kennet Long Barrow before going into the Solar/Lunar formation (please include picture) that had appeared on the 13 July; by the time we left the circle the foot pain had completely vanished. At the time of writing, now some three months later, she tells me that the pain never returned.

Another report from that day came after visiting the 'Maze' at Savernake.(please include picture)On arriving at the edge of the field we all donned our raincoats, stout shoes and umbrellas as a ferocious storm from Marlborough direction was heading our way. However at the last moment it suddenly veered away and not even a drop of rain reached us.

"I found the Maze very tranquil. (Recently I had a very traumatic family experience which left me emotionally drained of energy and confidence). I found a secluded corner in the circle and sat quietly and I became very drowsy. My mind suddenly cleared and my thoughts took on a more perspective attitude. I gazed around me at the group and the sheer beauty of my surroundings. We were all here together, strangers till now, but all of us with a common interest. This peaceful, relaxed feeling stayed with me and the same night I slept very soundly and deeply, but a strange dream woke me; it was a song I used to sing when I was a small child, long forgotten, but all the words came flooding back I sang it to my grandchildren. They loved it."

These various reports confirm that people are experiencing not only hormone stimulation involving the endocrine system but psychologically the circles can be judged to be generally beneficial.

As a measure of how these effects occur, we proceeded to conduct our usual scientific tests on the brain (Isobel Maxwell-Cade and Peter Staples) and endocrine system activity (Annie Smithells, Biotech Health, Petersfield), also an advanced Kirlian photography technique (Dr Roger Taylor) measuring the changes in area, spectral width, form and noise of the Kirlian records, that show the well being or otherwise of an individual by displaying the person's electromagnetic field.

Eleventh Test on the
Report of Measurement
from West Kennett,
Wiltshire, 1.8.2004
Invoked within a Crop Circle
Peter Staples and Isabel Maxwell Cade

1. Introduction
Following our investigations on the changes in psycho-physical responses experienced by people in crop formations over the years 1993 to 2003, we joined with Lucy Pringle and fellow researchers and enthusiasts to take more measurements this summer.

The approach we adopted was to use portable electronic biomonitoring instruments to monitor Electrical Skin Resistance (ESR), peripheral temperature and electrical brain rhythms via Electro-encephalograph (EEG), taking sets of reference measurements within the crop formation and in the same field but away from the formation.

The conclusions of a simple experiment of this type should be viewed as "demonstrative" rather than "proof" in strict scientific terms that the crop circles can be an agent in bringing about changes in states of consciousness.

2. Measurements and what they can show
The nature of these measurements and what they can show is summarised in the article "A test on the psycho-physical changes invoked within a crop circle" in The Circular, Vol4:4, March 1994, pages 13 to 15, to which the reader is referred.

In summary, measurements of changes and responses in the body are used to appraise the corresponding changes in mental/emotional state. The basis for this correspondence is empirical - derived from many hours of monitoring people and relating their subjective accounts and the observable responses with those taken objectively from the instruments. We attempt to interpret such changes in psycho-physical terminology eg. "shift from lethargic towards relaxed-and-alert" because these are more accessible than the physical readings from the meter scales. This obviously reflects a model of the psycho-physical responses with an objective consistency, and this was an important part of the work undertaken by Max Cade in the development of biomonitoring method and is implicit in these studies.

Watching the display of the Mind Mirror EEG for even a short period shows how rapidly and frequently the spectrum of brain wave activity can - and often does - change. The account given below is therefore a brief appraisal of the overall shift (or absence of such shifts) in the patterns of the subjects listed.

Our interpretation of the EEG patterns reflects a "hierarchy" of states of consciousness ie. where each state has a greater level of awareness and responsiveness than the one below. Whilst there are appropriate situations for all these states, we are looking for an increase in the level of awareness and in the balancing of the activity of the two sides of the brain. This way of interpreting EEG patterns is described in the book "The Awakened Mind" by C. Maxwell Cade and Nona Coxhead.

One of Max's states is delta on its own, which corresponds to deep (dreamless) sleep but we also see this pattern in wakefulness when accessing preconscious impressions or searching, for example searching memory or when dowsing. When delta is present with beta, but with little of the intermediary frequencies (particularly alpha), Max termed this "alpha blocking". The beta represents the externalising eg. putting thoughts into terms for communicating to others, but without alpha, this function is blocked from the source of its subconscious origins reflected in the delta activity. Alpha acts as a bridge for the transmission of impressions from the subconscious to the conscious functions.

"Fifth state", with balanced left/right alpha, beta and theta is often found in peak experience and in creative experience and the state provides the potential for the intuitive and empathetic attunement. When present with warm hands and a free moving hand ESR, this is a stress free state where energy flows freely and you are less likely to experience the effects of stress or feel drained.

3. Location
The location was arranged by Lucy. The controls were made in a barn at a farm at Beckhampton in Wiltshire and the formation was in the field of another farm, near Silbury Hill. The crop formation was called the West Kennett 'star' and was quite large. The crop was wheat. The aerial photograph shows the shape. The control measurements were made in the morning and those in the formation in the afternoon. On this occasion there were a few other people in the field at the time.

It was a hot sunny day with some cloud. The temperature in the barn (all in shade) was 27 degrees with no breeze and in the crop formation around 37 degrees Centigrade or 33 degrees Centigrade when the sun was behind a cloud.

Our subjects were Annie McCaffry, George Norrie, Jackie Faulkner and Bert Janssen.

4. Findings
The ESR and finger temperatures are summarised as follows (higher ESR means lower autonomic nervous system activity):

Subject ESR (left hand) ESR (right hand)
control in formation control in formation

Annie 40K 40K 80K 50K
George 350K 90K 300K 200K
Jackie 300K 30K 250K 50K
Bert 100K 120K 150K 60K

Subject finger temp. (left hand) finger temp. (right hand)
control in formation control in formation

Annie 34 degs 37 degs 33.5 degs 37 degs
George 33 degs 35.5 degs 33.5 degs 33.5 degs
Jackie 35 degs 36.5 degs 33 degs 35 degs
Bert 35 degs 36.5 degs 34 degs 37 degs

Note: The temperature in the field was around 37 degrees Centigrade when the sun was out from the clouds. As this is normal blood temperature the finger temperature readings there were of limited use.

In the control, Annie's EEG pattern showed "alpha blocking" which is a pattern where there are beta, delta and usually some theta activity but virtually no alpha activity. (Most of the brain functions do not rely on the awareness of the process by the individual which is facilitated by the alpha EEG activity. With alpha blocking, the subject often reports feeling no different when there are changes in the EEG patterns and other people may say his/her behaviour or attitude has changed). She was producing a lot of delta activity which we interpreted as "taking things in at a subconscious level", with awareness externally focussed.

In the crop formation, Annie's EEG patterns had more alpha activity and the characteristics of a meditative state with balanced alpha, beta and theta rhythms. At one point, she described her experience as "like bolts through me - through the whole of my left side and the middle of my back, making my legs move". Her legs were moving although she was comfortable with this happening. This could be an "ESP" sensation or similar.

Annie's ESR showed a fairly high level of activity, with twice the level on the left hand when in the crop formation (relates to the right brain hemisphere activity).

George's EEG pattern in the control showed mainly delta - indicating a brain state which was very "closed off" from the things going on around - into his own world. When talking about something important, he showed a transient symmetric alpha/beta/theta pattern - "state 5".

In the crop formation, he showed more beta - indicating more external awareness and much more of the balanced alpha/beta/theta pattern. The delta was still active but with the other frequencies he would have been more in contact with how he was feeling.

George's ESR showed much more activity on the left hand in the formation - by nearly a factor of four relative to the control. The right hand showed a smaller increase in activity in the formation.

In the control, Jackie's EEG pattern showed a lot of beta on both side of the brain. We interpreted this as "mentally overactive". She would also switch to a "state 5" pattern (balanced alpha/beta/theta) at times. In the formation, the beta had calmed down and the "state 5" pattern was more prominent

Jackie also showed much higher levels of ESR activity (autonomic nervous system) in the formation relative to the control - by a factor of ten on the left hand and a factor of five on the right hand.

In the control, Bert's EEG pattern showed "alpha blocking" with eyes open and an alpha/beta/theta pattern with eyes closed. In the crop formation, he showed more theta and more "enlivened" states. We wondered if there were other issues which were also affecting the brain rhythms. Bert described his situation as "there was no stimulus today - usually I talk with people and discuss things but not today".

Bert's ESR showed considerably more activity on the right hand in the formation (factor of more than twice the control value). His left hand showed slightly less activity than in the control.

5. Conclusions
All the subjects showed significantly lower ESR readings on the right hand in the crop formation than in the control. Lower ESR indicates a higher level of autonomic nervous system activity - ie. "gearing up for action", emotional / expressive arousal etc. The right hand ESR reflects the left brain hemisphere activity and is associated with "drive" and proactivity. George and Jackie also showed a large increase in the left hand ESR activity between the control and the crop formation.

All the subjects also showed better integration of the different components of the brain functions we could measure within the formation - eg. more alpha and theta activity on both left and right hemispheres showing improved "connection" of the conscious and preconscious.

Overall, the effect on the subjects was elevating - more balanced and "creative" than exciting. For these subjects, the experience in the formation definitely produced more dynamic and lively states of mind

Photo 9
Control measurements in the barn - above: Annie with Isabel
below: Peter with Lucy, George and Annie

Photo 10

Photo 11
Measurements in the West Kennett formation - above: Peter, Jackie and Isabel
below: Peter, Isabel and Bert

Photo 12

Photo 13
View from measurement area - Silbury Hill in the background

Photo 14
Aerial view of West Kennett formation
(Courtesy Lucy Pringle)

Bottles of water were also buried inside the formation, the West Kennett 'star'.
I do not have the results at the tie of writing.

A dead bird, a red-legged French partridge had been found beneath the fallen crop inside the formation. Stories about this vary and I have still to reach a conclusion about this actual event.

As usual I am deeply indebted to David Hues who kindly allowed us to conduct out control tests in one of his splendid barns at Beckhampton. It was a glorious setting with Silbury Hill looming large and majestically in the near distance.

After conducting the controls and having our picnic lunches in situ, we entered the West Kennett 'star'.
It was a blisteringly hot day.
For the hormone tests using the Best System, eight participants took part. Jim Lyons, George Norrie, Annie McCaffry, Rodney Hale, Roger Taylor, Lucy Pringle, Jackie Wolfe Murray and Bert Janssen.

Photo 15

Annie McCaffry's results were remarkable, so much so that Annie Smithell's retested her an hour later with the same results. In particular her thyroid showed a dramatic depletion. This is a hormone that has shown to be affected in other years.


Best System V Lie detector Tests.

There appears to be some confusion between the results obtained and the methodology used by the Best System (used by Anne Smithells of Biotech Health to measure and compare hormone levels in humans, inside and outside crop circles) and the accepted process used in Lie Detector Tests. I would like to clarify the difference between the two methods.

The Best System technique was originally discovered in France in the 30's but was left in abeyance until in the 1950's, Dr Reinhold Voll, a German bio-physicist, discovered a way to measure energy levels of bio points.

In the Best technique, the patient holds an electrode in one hand, whilst a galvanometer is pressed against an acupuncture point on a finger on the other hand.
This technique measures ohms at meridian (acupuncture) points, picking up electrical energy. These measurements are on a logarithmic scale.

Lie detector tests are conducted by encircling the finger with a conductive band and also measure in ohms skin resistance which is affected by perspiration. Again the voltage applied would not be more than 5 volts @ 30 micro amps.

Both are using skin resistance as a means of conveying the results.  However there is a basic and fundamental difference between the two tests. The Best machine is transmitting a selective frequency/noise pulled up from the library of electronic signatures in the computer, applying it to an acupuncture point and recording a physical/body response, whereas the lie detector test measures an emotional, psychological (not biological) reaction from the autonomic/sympathic nervous systems in response to certain questions put to the individual. This is revealed by the amount of perspiration on the finger. The area used for this test is much larger and more random than the precise location of an acupuncture point used in the Best tests.

Before each Best test begins, a balanced reading of 50 is obtained by pressing the probe (galvanometer) against acupressure points on the patient's finger until one is found that constantly gives a reading of 50 (equivalent to 100,000 ohms). The scale is between 0-100, the normal approximate reading is between 48-56.
Only then does the test begin.

How do we know we are measuring a particular substance?
We know that every substance has an EM field (food, vitamin, mineral, parasite or virus), containing its own particular energy pattern or electronic signature. Jim Clark, who developed the Best system, managed to isolate these individual patterns, record these EM signatures and encode them into the Best system, which currently over holds 30,000 Electronic signatures.

So if we are testing for thyroid for example, the probe to the acupressure point on the patient's finger will carry with the electronic signature of thyroid. The probe carries the selected frequency from the library of electronic signatures and sends a very small electronic signal (5 volts @ 30 micro amps). The body's reaction (skin resistance) is translated into numerical form and recorded by the system.
The normal scale of reading is broadly between 48 - 56. (approx. 98,000 - 150,000 ohms).

Professor William Tiller, (Dept of Material Science & Engineering) at Stanford University and others have examined this system and see great potential in terms of future diagnostic medicine.

Dr Roger Taylor reports "that although I got none of the sort of measurements I intended to get, the day's happening does seem worthy of a report.

"Just as last year, I brought my "GDV" (computerised Kirlian) equipment, together with crude 2nd hand laptop, 12v battery pack, and inverter to bring 12v up to 230v. All functioned OK in the barn, but using mains supply. But in the field, after only about 3 finger-readings, it failed. I thought this might be the inverter cutting out - perhaps due to overheating in the intense sun. When I got home, however, I found the fault was in the GDV: a small fuse had gone. This equipment has functioned perfectly during the 12 years or so that I have had it. Moreover, the fuse which failed was in the high-voltage section, rather than in the 230v input. This suggests that it had not been blown by some over-high input voltage, perhaps from a misfunction in the inverter. Instead one begins to think of some "influence" inducing an over-voltage in the coil of the high-voltage transformer. I know that fuses do sometimes eventually get "tired", if they are run too close to their rated current, but I can only remark on the extraordinary coincidence of this occurring at the time it did. Put this together with the failure of my best laptop during use in another circle 2 years ago, and it looks more like synchronicity than coincidence - if there's any difference!

"Perhaps this is a personal message to me to approach the circles with more respect!"

The rains set in at the beginning of the second week in August, thereby curtailing the season as effectively as the hot summer as 2003, but in reverse. One of the final formations to appear this summer was the eye catching formation opposite Silbury Hill on the crest of the hill, thereby rendering it invisible from the road below. Here again the waters are muddied and the possibilities read some like some gripping detective story; the Who Done Its, the Who Didn't Do It and the Did Nobody do It. Until I have made further investigations, I am not prepared to comment on that aspect. However I visited the formation very shortly after it reached it final form and could find no evidence of human involvement in the shape of plank crushing. William Betts also examined it and reached the same conclusion.


It appears to contain information relating to the 3 Mayan calendars which run in concert, the Long Count, the Tzolkin (Divine Calendar) and the Haab (Civil Calendar). Again there is debate about this information but on close analysis, I have reached the conclusion that it contains quite remarkable and in depth encoding of these three calendars. Thus one more avenue of exploration opens before me; one of the many I have been privileged to investigate as a result of this as yet unexplained phenomenon.

As always I would like to thank the scientists who generously give me and my research their time and energy (particularly Jim Lyons who has also drawn up the diagrams), to the farmers who allow us onto their land to carry out this research, to my web manager Paul Vigay and most of all to those of you who have filled in my questionnaires; without your help my research would not be able to expand and continue.

1. Blackmore, Susan. Alien Abduction, The Inside Story. New Scientist 19 November 1994. p 29.